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72所高职院校新设家政专业毕业生只能做高级保姆
2020-01-07 13:49   来源:  www.femme-cast.com   评论:0 点击:

72所高职院校新设家政专业毕业生只能做高级保姆新京报讯(记者马瑾倩)提到“家政”,不少人会联想到“搞卫

  新京报讯(记者马瑾倩)提到“家政”,不少人会联想到“搞卫生的”“高级保姆”,实际上,随着国家层面多项扶持政策出台,高校的家政专业已然成了“香饽饽”。

Beijing news (reporter ma jinqian) mentioned \"housekeeping \", many people will think of\" hygiene \"\"senior nanny \", in fact, with the introduction of a number of state-level support policies, college home economics has become a \"sweet spot.\"

  公开资料显示,去年全国有72所高职院校新设家政相关专业,本科和中职家政相关专业招生较同期大幅提升。其中,本科院校河北师范大学的家政学专业已于去年秋季开始招生。

Public information shows that last year, there were 72 higher vocational colleges in the new home economics related majors, undergraduate and secondary vocational home economics related professional enrollment significantly higher than the same period. Among them, undergraduate college Hebei Normal University's home economics major already began to recruit students last fall.

  记者梳理发现,国内高校开设家政专业的并不多,其中本科类院校包括天津师范大学、湖南女子学院、吉林农业大学等。

Reporter carding found that domestic colleges and universities to set up domestic majors are not many, including undergraduate colleges including Tianjin Normal University, Hunan Women's College, Jilin Agricultural University and so on.

  记者了解到,这些学校家政专业开设之初并不顺畅。天津师范大学一位工作人员告诉记者,该校保留了家政学专业但并未招生,依据该校官网的专业录取情况,2016年家政学专业已经停止招生。浙江树人大学工作人员介绍,多年前该校曾开设高职的家政服务专业,由于招生数量不足,该专业已划归到本科的工商管理专业(家政方向)。(,)珠海分校则在2015级本科生教学计划中取消了家政学专业。

Reporters learned that these schools at the beginning of the opening of domestic majors are not smooth. A staff member of Tianjin Normal University told reporters that the school retained its home economics major but did not recruit students, according to the admission of the university's official website, in 2016, home economics major has stopped enrollment. Zhejiang Shuren University staff members said that many years ago the university opened a higher vocational home service major, due to the lack of enrollment, the major has been assigned to the undergraduate business administration (domestic direction). Pearl Sea has abolished its home economics major in the 2015 undergraduate program.

  此外,聊城大学东昌学院于2009年创设家政学专业,此前每年只能招到十几人。湖南女子学院2013年创设该专业时,37个学生均来自专业调剂,并在接下来4年教学时间里,有一半学生选择转专业。

In addition, Liaocheng University Dongchang College in 2009 to create a home economics major, before only a dozen people can be recruited each year. When Hunan Women's College founded the major in 2013,37 students came from the professional adjustment, and over the next four years, half of the students chose to transfer to the major.

  2017年,国家发改委等17部门印发《家政服务提质扩容行动方案(2017年)》,行业发展有了新方向。聊城大学东昌学院顺势调整招生策略,当年开始进行家政专业春季高考招生,不久后完全停止夏季高考招生。

In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission and other 17 departments issued the \"Home Service quality and Expansion Action Plan (2017)\", the industry has a new direction for development. Liaocheng University Dongchang College homeopathic adjustment of enrollment strategy, that year began to domestic professional spring college entrance examination enrollment, and soon completely stopped summer college entrance examination enrollment.

  转变策略后,招生数量成倍上升。“2017级家政学专业在校生53人、2018级39人、2019级58人,学生规模呈增加趋势,但由于行业发展和社会观念问题,目前家政学专业发展仍然处于劣势。”聊城大学东昌学院教育系主任孟春青表示。

After the change of strategy, the number of enrollment increased exponentially. \"There are 53 students majoring in home economics in class 2017,39 in class 2018 and 58 in class 2019, and the scale of students is increasing, but the current development of home economics is still at a disadvantage due to industry development and social concept problems.\" Meng Chunqing, head of the Department of Education at Dongchang College, Liaocheng University, said.

  乘政策东风,去年全国有72所高职院校新设家政相关专业,本科和中职家政相关专业招生较前一年大幅提升。其中,本科院校河北师范大学新设家政学,并于秋季考试招生。

Taking advantage of the policy, last year there were 72 higher vocational colleges in the country to set up new domestic related majors, undergraduate and secondary vocational domestic related professional enrollment significantly higher than the previous year. Among them, undergraduate colleges and universities Hebei Normal University set up a new home economics, and in the autumn examination enrollment.

  为何要增设家政专业?湖南女子学院家政学教研室主任梁小燕介绍,2010年以后,市场上对于高质量家政服务的需求逐渐增加,湖南女子学院家政专业于2013年成立,成为中部地区首个开设相关专业的学校,“一方面,设立该专业的院校大多都有家政相关专业的开设历史,另一方面,不少学校也看到了‘一老一幼’问题上,社会服务的发展潜力。”

Why should we add a home economics major? After 2010, the market demand for high-quality domestic service gradually increased, hunan women's college housekeeping major was established in 2013, becoming the first central region to open relevant professional schools,\" on the one hand, the establishment of the major colleges and universities have a history of home economics, on the other hand, many schools have also seen'one old one child problem, social service development potential.\"

  孟春青介绍,作为较早设立家政学专业的高校,聊城大学东昌学院在课程设计上初具形态,课程大致分为基础理论、实操技能和培训管理三类,在课程体系中的占比大约为4:3:3。

Meng Chunqing introduced that as an early establishment of home economics major colleges and universities, Liaocheng University Dongchang College in the curriculum design has begun to take shape, courses are roughly divided into basic theory, practical skills and training management three categories, the proportion in the curriculum system is about 4:3:3.

  理论课程以心理学和教育学为基础,社会学和管理学为核心,包含家政学概论、家政思想史、家政调查原理与方法、家庭营养学、家庭教育学等。

The theoretical course is based on psychology and pedagogy, with sociology and management as the core, including the introduction of home economics, the history of domestic thought, the principles and methods of housekeeping investigation, family nutrition, family education and so on.

  培训管理课程包含家政企业管理、人力资源管理、家政培训与开发、家政与法律等,其中家政与法律是今年新开课程,向学生明确家政行业相关法律法规,以及从业人员权利义务。

Training and management courses include domestic business management, human resources management, domestic training and development, home economics and law, among which domestic economics and law is a new course this year to clarify the relevant laws and regulations of the domestic industry, as well as the rights and obligations of employees.

  实操技能课包含老年护理、母婴护理、家庭膳食制作、家庭护理、家庭实用医学等。随着互联网发展,学院还开设了“家政电子商务课程”,满足家政企业开展网上业务的趋势。学院针对这些技能要求,开设有相应实训室,保证专业场所下的实操。

Practical skills classes include elderly care, mother and child care, family meal making, family care, family practical medicine, etc. With the development of the Internet, the college also offers \"Home Economics Electronic Commerce course\" to meet the trend of domestic enterprises to carry out online business. In response to these skills requirements, the College has opened a corresponding training room to ensure the professional practice.

  学院采用“3 1”人才培养模式,即校内学习三年后,在学校实训基地进行为期一年的课程实践。湖南女子学院同样采取这样的培养模式。

The college adopts the \"31\" talent training model, that is, after three years of study in the school, it carries out a one-year curriculum practice in the school training base. Hunan women's college also adopted such a training model.

  随着家政学不断发展完善,更专业的人才培养体系也在逐渐形成。除中高职、本科院校外,(,)金陵女子学院教授熊筱燕透露,该校计划在教育学下筹建家政学硕士点,为国内家政学教育体系储备师资,并着手编写专业教材。

With the continuous development of home economics, more professional personnel training system is gradually formed. In addition to secondary vocational schools and undergraduate colleges, Xiong Xiaoyan, a professor at Jinling Women's College, said the university plans to prepare a master's degree in home economics under education, reserve teachers for the domestic home economics education system and begin to compile professional teaching materials.

  有家长担心,在高等院校念几年家政学,毕业后是当“高级保姆”。实际上,在聊城大学东昌学院,家政专业毕业生多从事家政企业管理培训、家政学教育研究,还有人选择自行创业,成为家政培训学校校长。孟春青表示,学生大多不愿意从事入户家庭照料工作,“即便刚毕业时有人选择,也是为了积累一线经验,便于日后开展管理工作。”

Some parents worry that after several years of schooling in higher education, they graduate as \"senior babysitters \". In fact, in Liaocheng University Dongchang College, home economics graduates mostly engaged in domestic enterprise management training, home economics education research, there are people choose to start their own business, become home economics training school president. Mr meng said most of the students were reluctant to take care of their families.\" Even if someone chooses to do so at the time of graduation, it is about building a first-line experience to facilitate future management work.\"

  高校纷纷开设家政专业的背后,是我国家政行业仍存在的用工难及从业人员服务质量低等问题。去年7月,国新办举行的政策吹风会披露,2018年,全国家政服务业从业人员超3000万人,但高中及以上文化水平仅占%,从业人员流动性高,大多是行业“新手”。

Behind the opening of housekeeping majors in colleges and universities are the problems of difficult employment and low service quality. In July last year, a policy briefing by the state's new office revealed that in 2018, there were more than 30 million employees in the national political service industry, but the education level of high school and above was only%, and the mobility of employees was high, mostly \"novice\" in the industry.

  去年,国务院印发《国家职业教育改革实施方案》提出,在职业院校和应用型本科高校启动实施“学历证书 若干职业技能等级证书”(简称“1 X”),并在全国范围试点进行有关职业技能等级证书认定。

Last year, the State Council issued the National Plan for the Reform of Vocational Education, which proposes to initiate the implementation of the \"Certificate of Education\" in vocational colleges and applied undergraduate colleges A number of vocational skill grade certificates \"(referred to as \"1X \"), and in the national pilot to carry out the relevant vocational skill grade certificate identification.

  聊城大学东昌学院就在试点范围中,并完成了母婴护理职业等级考核站点申报工作。湖南女子学院与企业合作创立“优家”平台,提供育婴师等相关网络课程和资格培训,目前平台成立3年,加上本校学生,平均每年培训2000多人。

Liaocheng University Dongchang College in the pilot scope, and completed the maternal and child care occupational grade assessment site application. Hunan Women's College and enterprises to create a \"excellent home\" platform to provide babysitters and other related network courses and qualifications training, the platform is now established for 3 years, plus the school students, an average of more than 2000 people a year.

  记者走访多家家政服务企业发现,聘请家庭服务人员,市场最看重的仍是从业年限,“年纪大相对稳重,而且生活经验丰富,从业经验丰富的一般都抢着要,工资也相对高一些。”

Reporters visited a number of domestic service companies found that the recruitment of family service staff, the market is still the most important is the number of years of employment,\" older relatively stable, and life experience, the experience of the general rush to work, wages are relatively high.\"

  目前,大型家政企业普遍具有“中介 培训机构”的双重身份,熊筱燕表示,由中介企业直接提供培训,能更有针对性地提升劳动者工作素质。同时也符合国家层面相关规定。不过家政企业培训中,技能培训占大部分,家政理念和相关理论指导有所欠缺。“这一方面受制于受训者文化水平,另一方面也表明管理者的家政服务理念还需进一步转变,家政服务不应仅停留在体力劳动为主的简单服务。”

At present, large domestic enterprises generally have the double identity of``intermediary training institution'' , Xiong Xiaoyan said that the intermediary enterprise directly provides training, can improve the worker's work quality more targeted. It also complies with relevant national regulations. However, skill training accounts for the majority of domestic enterprise training. On the one hand, it is subject to the cultural level of the trainees, and on the other hand, it also shows that the management's domestic service concept needs to be further transformed, and the domestic service should not stay only in the simple service of physical labor. ``.

  熊筱燕认为,近几年,更多学校建立家政相关专业,表明行业和学科发展的趋势良好,但仍要看到,我国家政学科存在学校数量少、招生难等问题,一个重要原因是公众对于家政专业存在误解。

Xiong Xiaoyan believes that, in recent years, more schools have established house-related specialties, indicating that the trend of industry and discipline development is good, but it still needs to see that there are few schools in our country's domestic affairs, the difficulty of enrollment and other problems. One important reason is that the public's misunderstanding about the domestic affairs specialty.

  “大家明显混淆了‘家政’和‘家服(家庭服务)’的概念。家政学可以说是一门‘生活科学’,是一个人从出生到死亡全过程中,管理、提高生活质量的学问,涉及恋爱、婚姻、生子以及衣食住行等生活内容。”熊筱燕表示。

“There is a clear confusion between the concepts of'domestic' and'family service'. Home economics can be said to be a'life science', a person from birth to death in the whole process of management, quality of life, involving love, marriage, children and food, clothing, housing and other life content. Mr Xiong said.

  她举例称,“网红”李子柒是一位家政达人,但不是“家政学”达人,两者区别在于,李子柒的视频以展现食物“色香味”为主,如果能加上营养学阐释,在专业上就有了进一步的提升和发展。“也就是说,李子柒的短视频体现了一种生活美学,让网友向往田园牧歌,而如何将理想生活状态变为现实,就是家政学所体现的要义。”

She said, for example,\" net red \"plum Qi is a family, but not\" home economics \"talent, the difference between the two is that the video of plum Qi to show food\" color and fragrance \"mainly, if can add nutrition interpretation, there is a further professional promotion and development. \"That is to say, the short video of Li Zi Qi embodies a kind of life aesthetics, which makes netizens yearn for pastoral songs, and how to turn the ideal state of life into a reality is the essential meaning of home economics.

  熊筱燕认为,如果全民都能提升生活科学素养,管理好自己的生活,那么从事家政服务的人员会带来更加专业的服务,并优先用在老人照护、儿童陪伴等方面,甚至起到家人般的职责和作用。因此在培训家政服务人员时,不仅要重视家庭服务技能培训,更要提升家政素养和观念,例如育儿的照料者就应当担负起准妈妈角色,不仅保证孩子吃饱穿暖,还要注意婴幼儿的教育,促进下一代人成长。

Xiong Xiaoyan believes that if the whole people can improve their life science literacy and manage their own life, then the staff engaged in domestic service will bring more professional services, and priority in the care of the elderly, child companionship, and even play a family-like role and role. Therefore, in the training of domestic service personnel, we should not only pay attention to the training of family service skills, but also improve the quality and concept of domestic service, for example, the carers of parenting should assume the role of mother-to-be, not only to ensure that the children are full and warm, but also to pay attention to the education of infants and promote the growth of the next generation.


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