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小學一年級語文統編教材難不難
2020-01-06 21:55   来源:  www.femme-cast.com   评论:0 点击:

小學一年級語文統編教材難不難近期,網上關于“小學一年級上冊語文統編教材比較難”的觀點引發了大眾的關注

  近期,網上關于“小學一年級上冊語文統編教材比較難”的觀點引發了大眾的關注和討論。為何會有這樣的看法,小學語文一年級統編教材到底難不難?針對這一問題,記者日前采訪了兒童閱讀研究專家、(,)李虹教授,小學語文統編教材執行主編陳先云以及內蒙古林西縣王秀梅和河北省平山縣秦韶華兩名農村學校一線語文教師,聽聽他們怎么說。

Recently, the online on \"the first grade of primary school language unified compilation of teaching materials more difficult\" views have attracted public attention and discussion. Why would there be such a view that the primary school language first grade unified compilation of teaching materials after all difficult? In response to this question, the reporter recently interviewed children reading research experts,(,) Professor Li Hong, primary school language compilation textbook executive editor-in-chief Chen Xianyun, Linxi County, Inner Mongolia Wang Ximei and Pingshan County, Hebei Province Qin Shaohua two rural school language teachers, listen to them.

  針對網上有關識字難度加大的觀點,陳先云介紹說:“與人教版課標實驗一年級上冊教材相比,統編語文教材一年級上冊的識字量要求已經從400個字減少到300個字,從識字量來看,不僅沒有增加,反而是大大減少了。”

\"Compared with the first-year experimental textbook, the first-year literacy requirement has been reduced from 400 words to 300 words,\" Chen said.

  作為研究兒童閱讀的教育心理學工作者,李虹教授曾經對小學語文教材進行過系統研究。她分析過原人教版等多個版本的小學語文教材和現行的統編語文教材,統計了每個版本教材中每一冊識字表和寫字表的生字數量。根據統計數據顯示,現行統編語文教材小學一年級上冊的識字量比其他版本的都要低,寫字量基本持平。那為什么還有人覺得一年級學生識字難呢?李虹告訴記者,因為小學一年級是先學生活中常用的高頻字,再學低頻字,先學筆畫少、結構簡單的獨體字,然后合體字才慢慢多起來。而漢字中很多高頻字的歷史演變十分復雜,導致其構字規律不明顯,比如,有的高頻形聲字中聲旁表音和形旁表意的特點不突出,再加上初學漢字的學生對漢字的筆畫、結構相對陌生,也沒有足夠的正字法意識和獨體字知識作為基礎,所以學起來有一定難度。

As an educational psychologist who studies children's reading, Professor Li Hong has systematically studied Chinese teaching materials in primary schools. She has analyzed several versions of primary school language teaching materials such as the original edition and the current compiled language teaching materials, and counted the number of new characters in each volume of literacy and writing tables in each edition of the textbook. According to statistics, the first grade of the current Chinese language textbook primary school literacy is lower than the other versions of the volume of literacy, writing is basically the same. Why would anyone find it difficult for a freshman to read? Li Hong told reporters, because the first grade of primary school is to first learn the commonly used high-frequency characters in life, and then learn low-frequency characters, first learn less strokes, simple structure of the single character, and then fit the word slowly more. However, the historical evolution of many high-frequency characters in Chinese characters is very complicated, which leads to the fact that the rules of their construction are not obvious. For example, some high-frequency characters are not characterized by sound side-by-side and shape-by-side ideographic characters.

  內蒙古赤峰市林西縣繁榮寄宿制小學的王秀梅老師認為,一年級上冊會認300個字、會寫100個字,教材的要求對于他們這樣的農村寄宿制小學來說難度是適中的。因為這些字基本上都是生活中常用常見的字,呈現形式也很生動。比如,“日月水火”這一課,學生通過看圖的方式來認讀本課的8個生字,一點兒都不難。

Mr. wang xiumei, of thriving boarding school in linxi county, chifeng city, inner mongolia, believes that the first grade book will recognize 300 words and write 100 words, and the requirements of teaching materials are moderately difficult for such rural boarding primary schools as theirs. Because these words are basically common words in life, the presentation form is also very vivid. For example, in this lesson, it is not difficult for students to read the eight new words in this lesson by looking at pictures.

  河北省石家莊市平山縣兩河胡村小學的秦韶華老師分享了自己的經驗:“如果遇到某一課要寫的字比較集中怎么辦?比如,寫字最多的一課有5個字,可以把它們分開,第一節課隨堂解決2個字,下一節課再解決后3個字,這樣學生學起來就不難了。”

Teacher Qin Shaohua of Lianghe Hu Cun Primary School in Pingshan County, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province shared his experience:\" What if the words to be written in a certain lesson are more concentrated? For example, the most written class has five words, which can be separated, the first class will solve two words with the class, and the next class will solve the next three words, so that it is not difficult for students to learn.

  “如果不計算相關欄目中的選文,一年級上冊的課文數是24篇,而原來人教版課標實驗一年級上冊教材課文數是28篇。”陳先云介紹說。

“If you don't count the selections in the relevant column, the number of texts in the first grade is 24, and the number of texts in the first grade of the first grade is 28. Chen Xianyun introduced.

  課文從28篇減少到了24篇,為什么還會有人覺得閱讀難度大呢?李虹教授及其研究團隊收集了4個版本小學語文教材里的每一篇文章,建立了一個約80萬字的語料庫,通過分析每一篇課文的字數、字種、字頻、詞數、詞種、詞頻、虛詞比例、句長等多個數據,創建了一個可以計算漢語文本難易程度的可讀性公式。他們用公式計算了統編語文教材一年級上冊每一篇文章(含課文和拼音、“語文園地”中的選文等)的難度,結果發現,大部分文章的難度和之前的人教版課標實驗教材很接近,只有少數幾篇文章,數據統計顯示難度稍高,但這幾篇文章有其特定的編排目的。如《項鏈》一課的難度主要體現在句長,但選用這篇帶有長句子的文章,是為了配合課文《雨點兒》,繼續培養學生“讀好句子的停頓”的能力。《小蝸牛》是一年級上冊最后一課,大家看到文章長了,但課文以季節變化為線索,部分內容反復出現,段落形式一致,學生只要理解了一個段落,就能舉一反三理解全文,實際理解難度并不大。《猴子撈月亮》和《拔蘿卜》等文章偏長,但編排在“和大人一起讀”欄目中,并不要求學生自己閱讀,而是希望教師或家長讀給學生聽,以此激發閱讀興趣、培養閱讀習慣,為學生今后的獨立閱讀打下基礎。因此,教材中不同文本的教學要求是不一樣的,這是教師和家長需要注意的。

The text has been reduced from 28 to 24. Why would anyone find reading difficult? Professor Li Hong and his research team collected each of the four versions of the primary school Chinese textbook, and set up a corpus of about 800,000 words. By analyzing the number of words, type, frequency, word type, word type, word frequency, function word proportion and sentence length of each text, a readable formula for calculating the difficulty degree of the Chinese text was created. They used the formula to calculate the difficulty of every article in the first grade of the Chinese textbook (including the text and Pinyin, the selection of articles in the Chinese Garden, etc.), and found that the difficulty of most of the articles was very close to that of the previous experimental textbook, only a few articles, the data statistics showed that the difficulty was slightly higher, but these articles had a specific purpose. (1)(2)(2)(2)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(3)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4)(4 \"Little Snail\" is the last lesson in the first grade, but the passage is long, but the text takes the seasonal change as the clue, some of the content appears repeatedly, the paragraph form is consistent, the student only understood a paragraph, can draw a lesson from one another to understand the full text, the actual understanding is not difficult. \"The Monkey Catching the Moon\" and \"Pulling the Carrot\" are long articles, but in the \"Reading with Adults\" column, students are not required to read by themselves, but rather, teachers or parents are expected to read them to students, so as to stimulate reading interest, cultivate reading habits, and lay the foundation for students to read independently in the future. Therefore, the teaching requirements of different texts in the teaching materials are different, which teachers and parents need to pay attention to.

  陳先云認為,小學語文統編教材設置的一些欄目有其不同的教學目標。比如說“日積月累”,主要是讓學生初步感受中華優秀傳統文化,在教師的幫助下通過朗讀、記憶來積累。一年級上冊第4單元的“日積月累”:“一年之計在于春,一日之計在于晨。一寸光陰一寸金,寸金難買寸光陰。”簡短的4句話,就讓學生從小知道要珍惜光陰。再如“和大人一起讀”欄目,主要是考慮到一年級幼小銜接的特點,通過和大人一起讀來激發學生的閱讀興趣,不要求學生獨立閱讀。因為一年級學生識字量還很少,很難做到獨立閱讀。所以《猴子撈月亮》這篇文章,學生能在大人的幫助下閱讀,借助插圖大致了解故事的意思即可,教師或家長在指導學生學習時不要拔高要求。只要在大人的幫助下,學生借助拼音能把課文讀下去就可以,即使有一些詞語、有一些句子讀不懂也沒有關系。隨著學生識字量的增加、閱讀能力的提高,他們能慢慢地由不懂到懂、由不會到會。

Chen Xianyun believes that some columns of the primary school language textbook have different teaching objectives. For example,\" cumulative \", mainly to let students initially feel the Chinese excellent traditional culture, with the help of teachers through reading, memory to accumulate. Unit 4 of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Year of the First Day of the First Year of the First Year of the First Day of the First Day of the First One inch of time and one inch of gold is hard to buy. Short 4 sentences, let the students know from childhood to cherish the time. Again such as \"read with adults\" column, mainly considering the characteristics of the first grade young and young cohesion, through reading with adults to stimulate students'interest in reading, do not require students to read independently. Because the literacy of first grade students is still very small, it is difficult to read independently. Therefore, the \"Monkey Catch the Moon\" article, students can read with the help of adults, with the help of illustrations to understand the general meaning of the story, teachers or parents in the guidance of students do not ask for higher requirements. As long as with the help of adults, students can use Pinyin to read the text, even if there are some words, some sentences do not understand it does not matter. With the increase of students'literacy and reading ability, they can slowly change from ignorance to understanding and from not to attend the meeting.

  李虹認為,學習課文的目的主要是培養學生的閱讀能力,而增加閱讀量是非常重要的。只有通過大量閱讀,才能幫助學生提高詞匯量,積累背景知識等。就字詞而言,同一個詞語往往有多個義項,在不同的語境中,其含義和作用也不相同。只有通過大量閱讀,學生才會有機會接觸到足夠多樣、足夠豐富的詞語使用的具體情境。

Li Hong believes that the main purpose of learning the text is to cultivate students'reading ability, and it is very important to increase the amount of reading. Only by reading a lot can we help students improve their vocabulary and accumulate background knowledge and so on. As far as words are concerned, the same word often has multiple meanings, and its meanings and functions are different in different contexts. Only by reading extensively will students have access to specific situations in which words are sufficiently diverse and abundant.

  王秀梅、秦韶華兩位老師對于統編語文教材的欄目設置給予了肯定,特別是“和大人一起讀”欄目。她們認為,學生在幼兒園時期最喜歡聽故事,最愛聽大人給他們講故事。而“和大人一起讀”這個欄目的設立,正體現了“幼小銜接”理念。通過共同閱讀,學生和大人之間不僅能進行語言交流和情感溝通,更能體會到語文的學習和生活中的快樂時光是融合在一起的,體會到語文學習的趣味性和重要性。

Wang xiumei, qin shaohua two teachers on the compilation of chinese teaching materials column settings to give affirmation, especially \"read with adults\" column. They believe that students like to hear stories most in kindergarten, and they like to hear stories from adults. And \"read with adults\" the establishment of this column, is reflected in the \"young convergence\" concept. Through reading together, students and adults cannot only carry out language communication and emotional communication, but also realize that the learning of Chinese and the happy time in life are merged together, and realize the interest and importance of Chinese learning.

  “一年級上冊總共有6首古詩,有的出現在課文中,有的出現在語文園地‘日積月累’欄目中。從教材的編排意圖來看,我覺得古詩只要學生在熟讀的基礎上達到記住的目的就可以了。”王秀梅說。在學《古朗月行》這首古詩時,王秀梅先示范誦讀,然后讓學生閉上眼睛想象,學生在想象畫面的過程中,她再描述這首詩的意境,在此基礎上,學生跟著王老師一起朗讀。在這樣互動交流的過程中,學生很容易就把《古朗月行》這首詩背下來了。

“There are six ancient poems in the first grade, some in the text and some in the'accumulation'section of the Chinese garden. From the arrangement of the textbook, I think the ancient poetry can be remembered as long as the students are familiar with it. said Wang. In learning the ancient poem "Gu Lang Yue Xing ", Wang Xiumei first demonstrated reading, and then let the students close their eyes to imagine that the students in the process of imagining the picture, she again described the artistic conception of the poem, on this basis, the students read with teacher Wang. In the course of such an interactive exchange, it is easy for students to memorize the poem "Long Moon Walk ".

  “教材難或不難這個問題,是非常主觀的。仁者見仁,智者見智,或者說會者不難,難者不會。”李虹說。她從研究者角度分析,認為網上一些人覺得語文教材難,主要原因有兩點:第一是漢語的特殊性,因為漢字是方塊文字,不表音,基本的書寫符號不是字母,學生需要掌握常用的2500個漢字,每個漢字都要學習它怎么讀、怎么寫,所以漢語的閱讀學習是相對較難的,這就決定了在不同的語言環境中,學生什么時候能學會閱讀的時間點也是不一樣的。第二點是教材的不同欄目有不同的目標設計和教學要求,教師要把握學生的個體差異,充分利用教材的梯度設計,讓學起來較輕松的學生“吃得飽”,覺得學習有挑戰性;讓學起來需要一定時間的學生“學得穩”,覺得學習有成就感。這樣才能夠幫助他們成為積極的學習者,這些對教師來說是一個挑戰。

“The problem of teaching materials difficult or not difficult is very subjective. Those who are different, those who are different, those who are wise, or those who are good, are not bad. said Li Hong. She points out from the researcher's point of view that some people on the Internet find Chinese teaching materials difficult, mainly for two reasons: the first is the particularity of Chinese, because Chinese characters are square characters, do not express sound, the basic writing symbols are not letters, students need to master the commonly used 2500 Chinese characters, each Chinese character has to learn how to read and how to write, so it is relatively difficult to learn Chinese reading, which determines when students can learn to read in different language environments is also different. The second point is that different columns of teaching materials have different goal design and teaching requirements, teachers should grasp the individual differences of students, make full use of the gradient design of teaching materials, so that students who learn more easily can "eat enough" and feel that learning is challenging. Only in this way can they become active learners, which is a challenge for teachers.

  陳先云告訴記者,對于網上反映的小學語文一年級教材的一些問題,已經通過不同形式的教材培訓向教研員和一線教師們做了一些說明,比如說教材編寫理念是什么、各個欄目承載著什么樣的功能。同時在教師教學用書中,對教材的編排意


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