您现在的位置是:主页 > 365bet体育在线app官网 > 潘维平民主义错译成民粹主义,该纠正了

潘维平民主义错译成民粹主义,该纠正了
2020-01-07 13:49   来源:  www.femme-cast.com   评论:0 点击:

潘维平民主义错译成民粹主义,该纠正了“民粹主义”是英语“populism”(平民主义,反义词是“elitism”精英

“民粹主义”是英语“populism”(平民主义,反义词是“elitism”精英主义)的诡异中文译法。尽管“populism”有些微的自嘲贬义,大体还属中性,欧美不少著名政治家自称“populist”,即“平民主义者”。但当前的中译“民粹主义”有明确贬义,甚至有“民之纳粹”的联想,以致当今不少中国学人理直气壮地著文谴责之。当中文的“民粹主义”反译回英文,只可能是“populism”,不可能译为让西方人莫名其妙的“大众纳粹主义”。

\"Populism\" is the eerie Chinese translation of English \"populism \"(the antonym for\" elitism \"). Although \"populism\" is somewhat self-deprecating and generally neutral, many prominent politicians in europe and america call themselves \"populist\" or \"populist \". But the current chinese translation of \"populism\" has a clear and derogatory connotation, and even the association of \"the nazis of the people \", so that many chinese scholars have rightly condemned it. When chinese \"populism\" is translated back into english, it can only be \"populism \", which cannot be translated as\" popular Nazism \"that makes westerners inexplicable.

“民粹”译法起初并无贬义,而是“民之精华”的褒义。1905年俄国革命失败后,有俄国“平民派”流亡日本,在东京的中国同盟会会员曾寻求其帮助;大概受日文“国粹”启发,译其名为“民粹”派,以对应“群氓”。这种译法也能避免与“democracy”(今译“民主”)当初的一种流行中译“平民主义”混淆。“民粹”变成明显的贬义词,应来自中国共产党人在上世纪30年代末期翻译列宁著作和《联共(布)党史简明教程》。列宁激烈批判俄国的“平民派”,因其强调俄国农村传统村社的社会主义性质,间接否定无产阶级革命的必要性。虽沿用“民粹”旧译,被列宁批判的思想当然是“反动思想”。

The translation of \"populism\" did not initially have a derogatory meaning, but a positive meaning of \"the essence of the people \". After the defeat of the Russian Revolution in 1905, there was a Russian \"populist\" exile in Japan, whose help had been sought by members of the Chinese Alliance in Tokyo. This translation also avoids confusion with the popular Chinese translation of \"populism\" by \"democracy \". \"Populism\" becomes an obvious derogatory term, which should come from the translation of Lenin's works and the Concise Course on Communist Party History by the Chinese Communists in the late 1930s. Lenin strongly criticized the \"common people\" in russia, because it emphasized the socialist nature of the traditional village community in russian countryside, and indirectly denied the necessity of proletarian revolution. Although the old translation of \"populism\" is followed, the thought criticized by Lenin is of course \"reactionary thought \".

探讨平民主义的政治主张基本是徒劳的。当代平民主义的核心主张仅是反对精英践踏平民利益和蔑视平民智慧。人类社会的区隔,首先是男女性别,其次是精英与平民,再次才是阶级、族裔、国家等。所以,平民与精英之分很抽象,并不必然有明确的政策取向,也同是否属于“极端主义”无关。同样,主张妇女权利的人,在政治立场上可能是右派,也可能是左派;既可能温和也可能激进。平民和精英两种主义的主张者中既有政治、经济、社会的左派,也有政治、经济、社会的右派,当然还有中间派。所有左、中、右的政治主张,无论温和或激进,都可能倾向平民,也可能倾向精英。

It is essentially futile to discuss populist political claims. The core idea of contemporary populism is simply to oppose the elite trampling on the interests of civilians and defying their wisdom. The division of human society, first of all, male and female gender, followed by elite and civilian, and then class, ethnicity, state and so on. Therefore, the distinction between civilians and elites is abstract and does not necessarily have a clear policy orientation, nor is it related to whether it is \"extremism\" or not. Likewise, women's rights advocates may be politically right-wing or left-wing; they may be moderate or radical. Among the advocates of populism and elitism are the political, economic and social left, the political, economic and social right, and, of course, the centrist. All left, center, and right political claims, moderate or radical, may or may not favor the civilian population.

在私有制消亡之前,精英与平民是对几近永恒的悖论。不彰显智慧与平庸的差异,要求精英为广大平民无偿做奉献,社会就平等,大多数人就不会感到痛苦,但代价是全社会的平庸。但倘若对个人智慧报以包括财富在内的对他人的支配权,就生出追求支配权的精英集团,代价是广大平民感到痛苦,感到相对被剥夺、被支配,进而导致社会分裂。个人智慧相对贫乏的群体因愚蠢而被淘汰,个人智慧相对丰富的群体因社会分裂而被淘汰。常有强调社会平等团结的群体被强调个人私欲的群体击溃,也常有强调个人私欲的群体被强调社会平等团结的群体击溃。

Before the demise of private ownership, elites and civilians were almost eternal paradoxes. Without highlighting the difference between wisdom and mediocrity, requiring the elite to give for the majority of the civilian population free of charge, the society will be equal, and most people will not feel pain, but the price is the mediocrity of the whole society. However, if the personal wisdom is rewarded with the right of domination over others, including wealth, it will give birth to the elite group that pursues the right of domination, at the cost of the suffering of the broad masses of civilians, the feeling of relative deprivation, the domination, and the resulting social division. The relatively poor group of personal wisdom is eliminated because of stupidity, and the relatively rich group of personal wisdom is eliminated because of social division. Often groups that emphasize social equality and solidarity are defeated by groups that emphasize individual desires, and groups that emphasize individual desires are defeated by groups that emphasize social equality and solidarity.

传统中国为何不盛行“平民主义”说法?与西方传统社会有法律规定的严格阶级地位分际不同,中国小农社会缺乏实行长子继承的客观条件,“富不过三代”,阶级分际既不清晰也不稳定,所以中国古人早就意识到平民与精英的相互依存性。《尚书·夏书·五子之歌》中就声称,“民惟邦本,本固邦宁”。带有北方游牧生活遗传的唐朝,把精英与平民分得比较清楚;但也说精英与百姓是舟与水的关系,即水能载舟,亦能覆舟。后人与唐人不同,倾向用鱼与水、骨与肉的关系形容精英与平民的关系。“民本”是中国共产党“群众路线”的思想根源,与近代西方流行的“民主”相得益彰。

Why doesn't \"populism\" prevail in traditional China? Different from the strict class status division stipulated by law in the traditional western society, the small peasant society in China lacks the objective conditions to carry out the inheritance of the eldest son, and the class division is neither clear nor stable. The song of the five sons of Shangshu Xiashu claims that \"the people are the only ones, but they are the ones \". In the tang dynasty, which has the inheritance of nomadic life in the north, the elite and the common people are clearly divided, but it is also said that the elite and the common people are the relationship between the boat and the water, that is, the water can carry the boat, but also can overturn the boat. Later generations, unlike the Tang people, tend to use the relationship between fish and water, bone and meat to describe the relationship between the elite and the common people. \"People-based\" is the ideological root of the \"mass line\" of the Communist Party of China, which complement the popular \"democracy\" in the modern West.

21世纪的第二个十年,为什么全球盛行对抗精英主义的平民主义?第一大原因是世界的生产和生活方式出现质变;第二大原因是市场的全球化迅猛发展。

In the second decade of the twenty-first century, why is populism against elitism prevalent globally? The first reason is the qualitative change in the world's production and lifestyle; the second reason is the rapid development of the globalization of markets.

从种植和养殖的财富,到近代制造的财富,又到而今设计研发出的无形财富,世界的生产和生活方式正处于剧变中。极少数精英遥遥领先,赢家通吃,甚至把很大一部分精英也变为平民。仅6000万人口的法国拥有深厚的高科技制造传统。而今法国教授月薪两三千欧元,与清洁工和卡车司机相同;但披上“洋马甲”的精英,月薪高达十几万欧元。法国社会分裂,再无力创造空客奇迹。在社会平等环境里成长的法国教授们,站在所有抗议运动前列,并非偶然。

From the wealth of planting and breeding, to the wealth of modern manufacture, to the intangible wealth of design and development now, the production and life style of the world is in a dramatic change. A very small number of elites are far ahead, with winners eating into their pockets and even turning a large portion of the elite into civilians. France, with a population of only 60 million, has a deep tradition of high-tech manufacturing. Today, French professors earn two or three thousand euros, the same as cleaners and truckers; but the elite, who are clothed in \"maga \", earn as much as a hundred thousand euros a month. French society is divided and no longer capable of doing the airbus miracle. It is no accident that French professors, who have grown up in an environment of social equality, are at the forefront of all protest movements.

冷战后,近14亿人口的中国给全球化注入了巨大动能,也让总共不到10亿人口的发达国家感受到巨大压力。在全球化中获利最多的美国和中国,平民与精英在收入鸿沟上的扩大速度也最快,所以两国都是平民主义的温床。美国政权被反全球化运动劫持,自称“平民主义”政权,并非偶然。中国共产党大力倡导“以人民为中心”的发展,誓言解决“不平衡发展”问题,亦非偶然。

After the Cold War, China, with a population of nearly 1.4 billion, injected huge momentum into globalization and made the developed countries, with a total population of less than 1 billion, feel great pressure. The United States and China, which make the most of globalisation, have also seen the fastest expansion of the income gap between the civilian population and the elite, so both are hotbeds of populism. It is no accident that the US regime has been hijacked by the anti-globalisation movement, calling itself \"populist \". It is no coincidence that the CPC strongly advocates the development of \"people-centered\" and has vowed to address the issue of \"unbalanced development \".

号称能左右人类未来的技术乌托邦,是精英主义在今天的突出表现。资本界以未来科技之名圈钱,号称无脑的“智能”将代替人脑,诱惑不做也不懂算法技术的文科生做公关,忽悠了经济政治精英,还人为制造出平民即将被先进技术淘汰的恐慌。如果开放的全球金融化是未来,开放的香港模式就是人类未来,平民就只能像香港居民那样靠炒房养老。如果迷信未来的人工智能和市场化将很快解决医疗资源短缺,眼下医患关系的恶化就不值得重视。对未来技术控制社会的迷信,对市场机制万能的迷信,对全球化和金融化的迷信,使精英话语挟持议程,与平民话语和平民日常生活的关切渐行渐远,甚至让不少金融骗子钻了空子,把平民当“韭菜”收割。

The techno-utopia, which purports to influence the future of mankind, is a prominent manifestation of elitism today. Capital circle money in the name of future technology, the so-called brainless \"intelligence\" will replace the human brain, the temptation not to do and do not understand the algorithmic technology of liberal arts students do public relations, hoodwink the economic and political elite, but also artificially create the fear that civilians will be eliminated by advanced technology. If the open global financialization is the future, the open hong kong model is the human future, and the civilian population can only rely on property speculation as hong kong residents. If the superstition of future artificial intelligence and marketization will soon solve the shortage of medical resources, the deterioration of doctor-patient relationship is not worthy of attention. Superstition to the future technology control society, the omnipotent superstition to the market mechanism, the superstition to the globalization and the financialization, causes the elite discourse to hijack the agenda, and the common people's discourse and the people's daily life concern gradually runs away, even lets many financial cheaters drill the hole, as the civilian \"leek\" harvest.

反思时下的精英主义倾向,笔者呼吁,勿用“民粹主义”,改用正常、中性的“平民主义”。(作者是北京大学国际关系学院教授)

Reflecting on the current elitism tendency, the author calls for not to use \"populism\" instead of \"populism\" in a normal, neutral way. Professor, School of International Relations, Peking University


相关热词搜索:

上一篇:央美教授被举报猥亵女生被猥亵人患抑郁整夜哭泣曾想过自杀
下一篇:没有了

分享到: